Sources: Australian Bureau of Statistics; Department of Industry and Science; ? ; ACALET


Sources: International Energy Agency; Energy Supply Association of Australia; Department of Industry and Science


Australian Bureau of Statistics, Labour Force, Australia, Detailed, Quarterly – May 2015, Cat. 6291.0.55.003, released on 18 June 2015; Australian Industry 2003-04 and Australian Industry 2013-14, Cat. 8155.0, 2013-14 edition released on 29 June 2015. Output and employment multipliers are longstanding features of input-output models in economics. The MCA uses a conservative coal employment multiplier of 3.7, which was derived by Sinclair Davidson and Ashton de Silva, The Australian Coal Industry – Adding value to the Australian Economy, paper commissioned by the Australian Coal Association, April 2013, p. 7. Their modelling drew on a February 2013 Reserve Bank of Australia working paper which found that the wider resource economy accounted for 18 per cent of gross value added in 2011-2012. See Vanessa Raynor and James Bishop, Industry Dimensions of the Resource Boom: An Input-Output Analysis, Research Discussion Paper 2013-02, Reserve Bank of Australia, Canberra, 2 February 2013.


Endnote: Global CCS Institute, Large Scale CCS Projects; International Energy Agency, Technology Roadmap High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation, Paris, originally published in 2012, updated March 2013, p. 19; ACA Low Emissions Technologies assessment based on publicly available information on world power plant efficiency levels, July 2015; Shoichi Itoh, A New Era of Coal: The ‘Black Diamond’ Revisited, National Bureau of Asian Research, working paper commissioned for the 2014 Pacific Energy Forum, Seattle,23-24 April 2014, p. 7.


Source: United Nations